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Ciguatera fish poisoning : Overview, Definition, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Therapy, Course And Prevention

Sunday, December 2nd 2012. | Condition A-Z
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Overview

Especially in the Caribbean, the Indian and Pacific, the consumption of various fish abruptly end the holiday delights: the so-called ciguatera fish poisoning. The fish themselves are not toxic, but take with food to a particular toxic substance that accumulates in their tissues.

Thus the ciguatera fish poisoning is a passive fish poisoning because the causative poison goes passively fish consumption in humans. Such fish poisoning are not rare: The passive fish poisoning ranks beside the ciguatera fish poisoning, for example, the poisoning by the puffer fish, whose flesh (fugu) is a delicacy in Japan. Yet, this is the active fish poisoning in which a fish causes the poisoning active by the poison – carried in the human body – usually via a branch (eg the stingrays).

The ciguatera fish poisoning is also one of the specific fish poisoning caused by a special poison (toxin). These toxins are responsible for about eight percent of all fish poisoning, the ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common specific fish poisoning. It is caused by the neurotoxins ciguatoxin andmaitotoxin . How much the symptoms are triggered by them depends on the weight and age of the victims and of the recorded amount of poison. The for ciguatera fish poisoning common signs is aninverse heat and cold sensation: Sufferers feel the contact with cold water or cold air than hot. First Symptoms of ciguatera fish poisoning, however:

  • Sweating ,
  • Numbness and
  • Burning,

especially around the mouth. In the course of ciguatera fish poisoning also feel your hands, feet and face numb. Moreover, then the following symptoms:

  • Chills ,
  • Dizziness ,
  • Nausea ,
  • Vomiting ,
  • Diarrhea and
  • Muscle cramps .

The symptoms of ciguatera fish poisoning may persist for months. An antidote is not available – the treatment is aimed primarily aims to mitigate the symptoms of poisoning. Since the responsible toxins are heat stable, can ciguatera fish poisoning prevented only by a total absence of fish.

Unlike specific fish poisoning as ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common in our part of the form of food poisoning from fish on the overgrowth of viruses and bacteria back, which is caused for example by improper storage or unsanitary conditions at the fish market. Such fish poisoning is mostly harmless.Any gastrointestinal complaints heal quickly and easily.

Ciguatera fish poisoning Ciguatera fish poisoning : Overview, Definition, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Therapy, Course And Prevention

img: fehd.gov.hk

Definition

The term ciguatera fish poisoning known by definition a passive poisoning by poisonous fish, whose consumption can lead to symptoms of poisoning), which the neurotoxins ciguatoxin and maitotoxin included. These toxins enter the food chain in the fish.Accordingly, the fish consumed is not itself toxic, but attains its poisonous effect only in that it accommodates the specific toxic substance in food.

Thus the Ciguatera – like the poisoning by the puffer fish, whose meat is muscle (Fugu) in Japan as a delicacy – a passive fish poisoningYet, this is the active fish poisoning , which usually arises through a bite by actively poisonous fish (eg stonefish, scorpion fish, stingrays).

Since the ciguatera fish poisoning by a particular (specific) creates poison (toxin), it is called a specific fish poisoning . In this it differs from the most common in our part of the form of fish poisoning, which is not due to a specific poison, but an overgrowth of viruses and bacteria (eg, due to improper storage or unsanitary conditions at the fish market).

Frequency

The ciguatera fish poisoning occurs with greatest frequency in the Caribbean, the Indian and Pacific. She is the most common specific fish poisoning. Overall, about eight percent of all fish poisoning caused by a special poison (toxin), with more than 50 different toxins are known. A special feature of ciguatera is that they may frequently occur after hurricanes or tsunamis.

Causes

Of ciguatera fish poisoning are as causes of certain toxic substances based on: ciguatoxin and maitotoxin . These neurotoxins move through the consumption of fish in the people.They are fat soluble (which favors its inclusion in addition) and heat stable, so you do not destroy it by frying or cooking the fish can.

The fish itself, its consumption has caused the ciguatera fish poisoning, but is itself not toxic – the causes for its toxicity can be found at the top of its food chain: On different, visible with the naked eye algae that occur on coral reefs, live certain microorganisms – called dinoflagellates the kindGambierdiscus toxicus : These are the responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning neurotoxins. A number of herbivorous fish, such as doctor or parrot fish eat the algae and take it to the poison. The poison accumulates in the tissues of the fish where the fish themselves the poisoning is not noted with the neurotoxin. Consuming contaminated fish eat little fish, and develop when they land on your plate, toxic effects in humans. These fish whose consumption causes ciguatera fish poisoning, include, for example eels, snapper, barracuda, mackerel and various perches. Large predatory fish are contaminated particularly strong.

Incubation period

When ciguatera fish poisoning, the time of the recording of the poison until the outbreak of fish poisoning (incubation period) is about 1 to 30 hours.

Symptoms

The ciguatera fish poisoning can cause varying degrees of symptoms – what is the extent of the symptoms depends on the weight and age of the victims and of the amount of absorbed poison. First signs of ciguatera fish poisoning are sweating , numbness and burning, especially in the mouth area. Later other symptoms in addition to the specific fish poisoning, such as:

  • Chills
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Vomit
  • Diarrhea
  • Muscle spasms

Also feel in the course of ciguatera fish poisoning, the hands, the feet and the face numb. Characteristic for Ciguatera is a unique neurological symptom: The triggering the poison nerve gas causes the heat and cold sensation reversed so stakeholders perceive the contact with cold water or cold air than hot.The result is a general feeling of weakness.

The ciguatera fish poisoning can in rare cases cause the blood pressure fatal falls and rapid heartbeat (tachycardia) occurs. The symptoms can persist for months.

Diagnosis

When ciguatera fish poisoning, the diagnosis – as with any fish poisoning – a major challenge. Ciguatera fish poisoning specific as you can usually diagnose based on symptoms and a history: In which region of the victims have eaten the fish? Which parts of the fish they have eaten? How much time elapsed before the first signs of poisoning occurred? Are there any other sufferers? Before the fish were eating before exceptional weather constellations? The triggering the poison ciguatera fish poisoning can prove itself only with great difficulty in a few specialized laboratories.

Treatment

When ciguatera fish poisoning aims therapy aims to alleviate the symptoms of poisoning. You also get as much fluid and electrolytesA powerful antidote to the poison itself causative does not exist.

In addition to the symptomatic treatment of ciguatera fish poisoning than acute therapy is an infusion of the sugar alcohol mannitol used: mannitol promotes urine, causing the body excretes the poison increases. Ciguatera fish poisoning leads specific to life-threatening situations, it is advisable to administer the treatment called plasma expanders infusions: solutions to the plasma volume of the blood increase and remain for long periods in the cycle. In the early stages of ciguatera fish poisoning, it is also useful to the stomach pump out.

History

The ciguatera fish poisoning shows in most cases a favorable course with a good prognosis: The poisoning there are no damages and the survival rate is about 99 percent. However, the costs associated with the ciguatera symptoms persist for several weeks to months.

Prevention

One of ciguatera fish poisoning can be prevented only one way for sure: by eating basically in those countries no fish. As the fish, whose consumption by the ciguatera arises not itself toxic and it usually can eat completely safe, it is otherwise virtually impossible to protect yourself from these fish poisoning. You can not look at a fish, whether he has taken the poison through the food or not.

A shelter from the ciguatera fish poisoning is therefore not possible because the causative neurotoxin is heat stable and thus it neither by boiling or by frying or grilling can destroy the fish. If you know of cases of food poisoning in your vacation area, so please do not prefer to use for preventing the consumption of fish. The same applies to certain meteorological conditions, as fish after heavy storms and tempests contain the poison particularly likely.

 

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